Atherosclerosis/LipoproteinsGalectin-3 Predicts Long-Term Cardiovascular Death in High-Risk Patients With Coronary Artery Disease
- Correspondence to Gian Paolo Rossi, MD, DIMED-Clinica Medica 4, University Hospital, via Giustiniani, 2, 35126 Padova, Italy. E-mail email@example.com
↵* These authors contributed equally to this article.
Objective—Galectin-3 (Gal-3) can affect atherogenesis by multiple mechanisms, but it remains scarcely known whether plasma Gal-3 levels predict cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Therefore, we investigated whether Gal-3 predicts cardiovascular death in patients with coronary artery disease of the Genetic and ENvironmental factors In Coronary Artery disease study.
Approach and Results—In a prospective cohort study, we measured the plasma levels of Gal-3 in 1013 randomly selected patients who underwent coronary angiography and long-term follow-up to assess incident cardiovascular events. The primary end points were (1) cardiovascular death and (2) a composite of cardiovascular death, acute coronary syndrome, and stroke. Secondary end points entailed (1) acute myocardial infarction, (2) stroke, and (3) a composite fatal ischemic event including fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. The effect of Gal-3 on prognosis was assessed using Kaplan–Meier analysis and multivariate Cox’s regression. During long-term follow-up (median, 7.2 years), 115 cardiovascular deaths occurred (15.2%), more commonly in the high Gal-3 tertile (25.2%) than in the intermediate and the low tertiles (13.6% versus 7.5%, respectively; P<0.001). The adverse prognostic effect of high Gal-3 was confirmed in subgroup analysis of the patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease and also of those with a normal left ventricular ejection fraction. At multivariate analysis, Gal-3 was a predictor of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.10–2.93; P=0.020) along with age, left ventricular ejection fraction, and coronary atherosclerotic burden.
Conclusions—In high cardiovascular risk patients referred for coronary angiography Gal-3 is a strong independent predictor of cardiovascular death.
- Received September 8, 2014.
- Accepted January 5, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.